Print-Friendly
Bookmarks

Phenobarbital overdose

Luminal overdose

Phenobarbital is a medicine used to treat epilepsy (seizures), anxiety, and insomnia. It is in a class of medicines called barbiturates. Phenobarbital overdose occurs when someone intentionally or accidentally takes too much of this medicine. Barbiturates are addictive, producing physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome that can be life-threatening.

This information is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual overdose. If you or someone you are with overdoses, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Poisonous Ingredient

Phenobarbital

Where Found

Other names for this drug are:

  • Barbital
  • Luminal
  • Solfoton

Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

Symptoms

Symptoms of a phenobarbital overdose may include:

Heart and blood vessels:

  • Heart failure
  • Low blood pressure (shock, in extreme cases)
  • Weak pulse

Kidneys and bladder:

  • Kidney failure (possible)

Lungs:

Nervous system:

  • Coma (lack of responsiveness)
  • Confusion
  • Decreased energy
  • Delirium (confusion and agitation)
  • Headache
  • Sleepiness
  • Slurred speech
  • Unsteady gait

Skin:

Before Calling Emergency

The following information is helpful for emergency assistance:

  • The person's age, weight, and condition
  • Name of product (as well as the ingredients and strength if known)
  • The time it was swallowed
  • The amount swallowed
  • If the medicine was prescribed for the person

However, DO NOT delay calling for help if this information is not immediately available.

Poison Control

Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This hotline will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Take the pill container with you to the hospital, if possible.

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure.

Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The person may receive:

  • Activated charcoal
  • Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation), and ventilator (breathing machine)
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest x-ray
  • ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
  • Fluids through the vein (intravenous or IV)
  • Laxative
  • Medicines to treat symptoms

This list may not be all-inclusive.

People who have persistent symptoms after initial treatment may need to be admitted to the hospital for further care.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well the person does depends on the severity of the overdose and how quickly treatment is received. With proper treatment, people can recover in 1 to 5 days. If there has been prolonged coma and shock (damage to multiple internal organs), a more serious outcome is possible.

References

Aronson JK. Phenobarbital. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:678-687.

Gussow L, Carlson A. Sedative hypnotics. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 159.

BACK TO TOP

           

          Review Date: 12/21/2018

          Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Emeritus, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
          adam.com

           
           
           

           

           

          A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.