Print-Friendly
Bookmarks

Pneumonia - weakened immune system

Pneumonia in immunodeficient patient; Pneumonia - immunocompromised host; Cancer - pneumonia; Chemotherapy - pneumonia; HIV - pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection. It can be caused by many different germs, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

This article discusses pneumonia that occurs in a person who has a hard time fighting off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in an immunocompromised host."

Related conditions include:

Causes

People whose immune system is not working well are less able to fight off germs. This makes them prone to infections from germs that do not often cause disease in healthy people. They are also more vulnerable to regular causes of pneumonia, which can affect anyone.

Your immune system may be weakened or not work well because of:

  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Chemotherapy
  • HIV infection
  • Leukemia, lymphoma, and other conditions that harm your bone marrow
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Medicines (including steroids, and those used to treat cancer and control autoimmune diseases)
  • Organ transplant (including kidney, heart, and lung)

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Other symptoms that may occur:

  • Heavy sweating or night sweats
  • Stiff joints (rare)
  • Stiff muscles (rare)

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider may hear crackles or other abnormal breath sounds when listening to your chest with a stethoscope. Decreased volume of breath sounds is a key sign. This finding may mean there is a buildup of fluid between the chest wall and lung (pleural effusion).

Tests may include:

Treatment

Antibiotics or antifungal medicines may be used, depending on the type of germ that is causing the infection. Antibiotics are not helpful for viral infections. You may need to stay in the hospital during the early stages of the illness.

Oxygen and treatments to remove fluid and mucus from the respiratory system are often needed.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Factors that may lead to a worse outcome include:

  • The pneumonia that is caused by a fungus.
  • The person has a very weak immune system.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

  • Respiratory failure (a condition in which a patient can't take in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide without the use of a machine to deliver breaths.)
  • Sepsis
  • Spread of the infection
  • Death

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have a weakened immune system and you have symptoms of pneumonia.

Prevention

If you have a weakened immune system, you may receive daily antibiotics to prevent some types of pneumonia.

Ask your provider if you should receive the influenza (flu) and pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccines.

Practice good hygiene. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water:

  • After being outdoors
  • After changing a diaper
  • After doing housework
  • After going to the bathroom
  • After touching body fluids, such as mucus or blood
  • After using the telephone
  • Before handling food or eating

Other things you can do to reduce your exposure to germs include:

  • Keep your house clean.
  • Stay away from crowds.
  • Ask visitors who have a cold to wear a mask or not to visit.
  • DO NOT do yard work or handle plants or flowers (they can carry germs).

References

Burns MJ. The immunocompromised patient. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 187.

Donnelly JP, Blijlevens NMA, van der Velden WJFM. Infections in the immunocompromised host: general principles. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 309.

Marr KA. Approach to fever and suspected infection in the compromised host. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 281.

Wunderink RG, Restrepo MI. Pneumonia: considerations for the critically ill. In: Parrillo JE, Dellinger RP, eds. Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management in the Adult. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 40.

BACK TO TOP

    • Pneumococci organism

      Pneumococci organism

      illustration

    • Lungs

      Lungs

      illustration

    • The lungs

      The lungs

      illustration

    • Respiratory system

      Respiratory system

      illustration

      • Pneumococci organism

        Pneumococci organism

        illustration

      • Lungs

        Lungs

        illustration

      • The lungs

        The lungs

        illustration

      • Respiratory system

        Respiratory system

        illustration

      A Closer Look

       
       

      Review Date: 5/10/2019

      Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
      adam.com

       
       
       

       

       

      A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.